Convenor:  Kusumita Arora (India)
Co-Convenors: Andriy Marusenkov (Ukraine), Chris Turbitt (USA) 

Ground geomagnetic observatories continue to play a crucial role in core field modeling, space weather, space physics, magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and secular variations. Observatory data have the dual strengths of long time series on the one hand and high resolution on the other. This offers a view into the temporal changes of the field of the past and present and also provides information about the global distribution of magnetic field variations and, is therefore, a complementary data set to those acquired by satellite-borne instruments.

This session aims to bring together the most recent results from experimental and theoretical improvements for all aspects of observatory data collection and processing, as well as direct applications of observatory data. The list of the invited contributions includes, but is not limited to, the following subjects: advances in absolute measurements; progress in variometer and scalar magnetometer design and operation; smart data processing and measurement validation; new or updated calibration methods; improvements to the global coverage of the observation network (with special reference to INTERMAGNET) ; and applications of observatory data.